Anthropologists earlier believed the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) to be a close relative of primates and classified the species in the prosimian suborder. Although that classification has now been questioned, the tree shrew undoubtedly represents a pivotal chapter in the natural history of the evolution of the brain. With its cone dominated retina, this animal is capable of carrying out color discrimination under isoluminant conditions (i.e. where hue alone is the cue). Unlike primates, it is capable of doing so even after ablation of the primary visual cortex. This book purports to be an electrophysiological examination of the functional architecture and integrative circuitry required for color vision in both the visual cortex and subcortical structures. It is, thus, a contribution to the study of the evolution of color vision -a topic which not only concerns Psychologists but is increasingly the focus of much attention among Philosophers.
This book introduces a new technique to improve the body performance of the chicken through partial ablation of a uropygial gland (Uropygialectomy). Noticeable enhancement in chicken production performance as well as the anatomy and histology of GIT were achieved for treated chicken compared than a control group. This application will cause a revolution in the poultry industry as well as will significantly contribute in its evolution by increasing the economic viability obtained through an increase the chicken product.
The phenomena of Coulomb explosion require the consideration of special relativity due to the involvement of high-energy electrons or ions. It is known that laser ablation processes at high laser intensities may lead to the Coulomb explosion, and their released energy is in the regime of kilo to mega eV. In contrast to conventional MD simulations, we adopt the 3D relativistic RMD method to consider the effects of special relativity in the conventional MD simulation for charged particles in strong electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, we develop a Coulomb force scheme, combining with the Lennard-Jones potential, to calculate interactions between charged particles, and adopt a Verlet list scheme to compute the interactions between each particle. It is found that the damage depth does not increase with repeated laser ablation when the pulse frequency is comparable to the duration of the pulse. Furthermore, we report the time evolution of energy propagation in space in the laser ablation process. The temporal-spatial distribution of energy indirectly indicates the temperature evolution on the surface of solid under intense laser illumination
Hypertension remains the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in spite of current medical therapies. It has been estimated that 50% of Western civilization has hypertension and approximately 20% of patients have resistant hypertension. Renal denervation (RDN) is a minimally invasive, endovascular catheter based procedure using radiofrequency ablation aimed at treating resistant hypertension. Early studies show a high degree of effectiveness in renal denervation to treat hypertension.This book examines renal pathophysiology and the rationale for renal denervation, as well as possible long term benefits and risks of this new therapy. The myriad of devices involved in the evolution of this therapy are discussed and the book concludes with analyses of the cost effectiveness and future applications.
Continued advancements in the understanding of the mechanism of atrial fibrillation, along with a persistent evolution of ablation approaches for treatment of this arrhythmia, has led to an ever growing need for left atrial access. The current practice at many centers is to still utilize fluoroscopy as the sole form of imaging employed for visualization during performance of transseptal puncture. It is clear that there are distinct inherent limitations regarding the accuracy of intracardiac catheter placement and manipulation when utilizing only fluoroscopic visualization. Use of intracardiac echocardiography imaging to facilitate transseptal puncture not only aids in a potentially more accurate placement of the transseptal sheath within the left atrium, but also provides incrementally greater imaging data regarding the interatrial septum/fossa ovalis, surrounding adjacent cardiac structures, and a more immediate ability to assess for complications. This study sought to assess the feasibility and influence of phased-array intracardiac echocardiography guidance on the outcome of transseptal puncture during ablation procedures in the electrophysiology laboratory.
Diagnosis and Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is a unique, multi-authored compendium of information regarding the complexities of clinical and genetic diagnosis, natural history, and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)-the most common and important of the genetic cardiovascular diseases-as well as related issues impacting the health of trained athletes.Edited by Dr. Barry J. Maron, a world authority on HCM, and with major contributions from all of the international experts in this field, this book provides a single comprehensive source of information concerning HCM. Recent advances in the field are discussed, including the importance of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, the use of implantable defibrillators for the prevention of sudden death in young people, definition of the genetic basis for HCM and its role in clinical diagnosis and risk stratification, the development of more precise strategies for assessing the level of risk for sudden death among all patients with HCM, and the evolution of invasive interventions for heart failure symptoms, such as surgical management and its alternatives (alcohol septal ablation and dual-chamber pacing).There are contributions from all experts in the field, representing diverse viewpoints regarding this heterogeneous disease and related issues in athletes. Information is provided to dispel misunderstandings regarding issues associated with HCM and cardiovascular disease in athletes.The only comprehensive source of information available on the topic
Hypertension remains the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in spite of current medical therapies. It has been estimated that 50% of Western civilization has hypertension and approximately 20% of patients have resistant hypertension. Renal denervation (RDN) is a minimally invasive, endovascular catheter based procedure using radiofrequency ablation aimed at treating resistant hypertension. Early studies show a high degree of effectiveness in renal denervation to treat hypertension. This book examines renal pathophysiology and the rationale for renal denervation, as well as possible long term benefits and risks of this new therapy. The myriad of devices involved in the evolution of this therapy are discussed and the book concludes with analyses of the cost effectiveness and future applications.
For the first time world-leading experts in the area of cellular signaling have joined to the production of a book on Smad signal transduction. Smads are the principal intracellular effectors of TGF-b family members that control numerous cellular responses with critical roles in development and in tissue homeostasis. In a series of 22 cutting-edge chapters forward looking reviews of Smads are provided that cover their discovery, evolution, role in development, mechanism of action and regulation, and how deregulation in Smad signalling contributes to human diseases. Written for an audience with basic understanding of molecular and cell biology, this volume provides an in-depth review of a rapidly developing field and extensive cross-references between chapters are provided. This book will be of particular interest to basic and applied biomedical researchers (students, post-docs or group leaders) with desire to understand the principles of cell-cell communication and mechanisms by which signaling pathways and gene programs control cell proliferation and differentiation, and how this knowledge may come to be applied in the clinic. TOC:1. Preface: the Smad family; P. ten Dijke and C-H. Heldin. 2. Evolution of Smad proteins; S. Newfeld. 3. Smad signaling in C. elegans; R. Padgett and G. Paterson. 4. Mad signaling in Drosophila; L. Raftery. 5. Delineating the TGF-ss/Smad-induced cytostatic response; F. Liu. 6. TGF- ss/Smad signaling in mesenchymal cell differentiation; R. Derynck. 7. Regulation of cell death and survival by Smads; K. Luo. 8. TGF-ss/Smad signaling in epithelial to mesenchymal transition; A. Moustakas. 9. Functional analysis of Smads through gene ablation in mice; C. Deng. 10. Regulation of Smad activation through endocytic segregation of TGF-ss receptors; J. Wrana. 11. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Smad proteins; C. Hill. 12. Structural insights into Smad function and specificity; Y. Shi . 13. Regulation of Smad function by phosphorylation; S. Souchelnytskyi. 14. Regulation of Smad function through ubiquitination and sumoylation; X.-H. Feng. 15. Smad co-activators and co-repressors; K. Miyazono. 16. Integration of signaling pathways via Smads and Smad interacting proteins; L. Attisano. 17. Interplay between Smad and MAP kinase signaling pathways; A. Mauviel. 18. Gene expression signatures of TGF-ss/Smad-induced responses; E. Böttinger. 19. Systems biology approaches to TGF-ss/Smad signaling; M. Tewari. 20. Inhibitory Smads; mechanism of action and role in human diseases; A. Nakao. 21. Alterations of Smad signaling in carcinogenesis; S.-J. Kim and J. Letterio. 22. TGF-ss receptor kinase inhibitors for treatment of cancer; J. Yingling. 23. TGF-ss receptor kinase inhibitors for treatment of fibrosis; N. Laping and S. Huet.
Diagnosis and Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is aunique, multi-authored compendium of information regarding thecomplexities of clinical and genetic diagnosis, natural history,and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)--the mostcommon and important of the genetic cardiovasculardiseases--as well as related issues impacting the health oftrained athletes. Edited by Dr. Barry J. Maron, a world authority on HCM, and withmajor contributions from all of the international experts in thisfield, this book provides a single comprehensive source ofinformation concerning HCM. Recent advances in the field arediscussed, including the importance of left ventricular outflowtract obstruction, the use of implantable defibrillators for theprevention of sudden death in young people, definition of thegenetic basis for HCM and its role in clinical diagnosis and riskstratification, the development of more precise strategies forassessing the level of risk for sudden death among all patientswith HCM, and the evolution of invasive interventions for heartfailure symptoms, such as surgical management and its alternatives(alcohol septal ablation and dual-chamber pacing). Key Features: * * Contributions from all experts in the field,representing diverse viewpoints regarding this heterogeneousdisease and related issues in athletes * * Information to dispel misunderstandings regarding issuesassociated with HCM and cardiovascular disease in athletes * * The only comprehensive source of information available on thetopic